(This is the fifth instalment in a series on the
trends that led to the present financial crisis)
1. Then there is the pyramid or
Ponzi scheme. Bernard Madoff was only exposed after he lost 50 billion dollars of
the money invested with him.
2. The operation is simplicity
itself. The operator simply gives back a percentage of the money
“invested” with him as dividends. If he pays a dividend of 20 per
cent he would finish the money in five years.
3. But as more and more new investors invest with him, he would be able to pay
the dividends long after the earlier investors had got back all the money they
had invested. Besides the investors would continue to invest more as they
receive the high dividends.
4. Generally the investor would be
so happy with the high dividends that they would not complain. The authorities
would therefore remain ignorant of the operations of the scheme. Besides if
exposed and forced to stop the investors would lose all the money they had
5. Madoff would not be the only one to operate this scheme. Actually no wealth
is generated as the invested money is actually returned. Nevertheless the
so-called dividends would contribute to the per capita and GDP of the country.